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"bin" is Arabic for "son of", so the names are all confusing as fuck. Mohammad bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is the son of Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud. The former is the crown prince and the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia; the latter is nominally the king, but is a doolally old bastard.
Mohammad bin Nayef was the crown prince until June of this year, when he was ousted by Salman bin Abdulaziz. According to some US sources, Nayef's decision to quietly stand aside may have involved Mohammed bin Salman's heavies, the boot of a Land Cruiser and some gentle persuasion with a rifle butt.
Al-Qaeda have repeatedly tried to assasinate Bin Nayef, most famously in 2009 when a bum-bomber turned himself into a human firework.