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I think they failed in Germany because of labour laws mainly. Wal-Mart is one of those American companies that set up shop in a country first, and ask questions later, and hope that their lawyers will sort things out (Uber is another one). They have actively contributed to the erosion of worker's rights in over a dozen countries that way, by winning court cases and lobbying legislation. Germany traditionally has very tight labour laws and strong unions, and Wal-Mart failed with its usual approach. At some point they just decided to cut their losses and retreat, because as a company basically founded by a family of Arkansas hillbillies, it did not compute to them that they had to follow a host country's rules and couldn't push their own rules on them.